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Gursum, Fugnanbira
See the twin Mountains, Ilalami Tiqo & Ilalami Gudo

From: Gursum
Thu Mar 02 07:05:41 -0800 2006
East Hararghe Zone



Physical Characteristics:- Having an area of 967.3 km2, Gursum district is found in the north eastern part of East Harerge zone http://www.multimap.com/wi/114394.htm.
.Jarso, Babile, Harari and Somali are the neighbouring districts and Regional States (fig.5). Fungnan Bira is the administrative seat of the district. The district is characterized by highlands and lowlands. Altitudinally, it stretches between 1200 and 2950 m.a.s.l. Kundudo (2950m), Medero (2500m), Ilalami (2131m), Fugnan Jueu (2200m) and Fugnan Chali (2100m) are the major mountains. Gursum lies within the Wabi Shebele drainage basin and accordingly drained by Hariro, Goro Obole, Bombas, Ejerti, Agemsa, etc. perennial rivers. Several streams and springs are also available. Climatically, it is classified into dega (15%), woinadega (35%) and Kolla (50%) zones. The major soil types are Vetric Cambisols, Vertic Luvisols, Eutric Fluvisols, Lithosols and Eutric Regosols. Juniperus, acacia, woodland, shrub and bush, and man made forests are available in the district. There are forests that are protected by the government. It spite of the fact that there is no wildlife conservation area, spotted hyena, duiker, baboon and warthog are found in the district.

Population:- There were 149,186 rural (73,852 females) and 9382 urban (4870 females) populations in the district. Young, economically independent and old age populations accounted for 50.4%, 47.7% and 1.8% respectively. Average family sizes for rural and urban center were 5.8 and 4.3 persons respectively. The district’s cured population density is estimated at 164 persons per km2.

Agriculture:- In 1996, about 15.7%, 8.9%, 13.2% and 22.4% of the district’s total area were arable, pasture, forest and built-up areas respectively, while the remaining was attributed to degraded and other areas. There were 36 Farmers’ Associations and one Services Cooperative with 25, 757 (2577 females) and 1336 (121 females) member farmers respectively. Average number of farm plots and farm oxen holding sizes per farmer household were 2.4 and 0.9 respectively. About 30% of the farmers were without farm ox. Maize, sorghum, haricot bean, barley and wheat are the dominant crops in the district. Application of manure, fertilizers, crop rotation and short fallowing methods are exercised to maintain soil fertility. About 1389 quintals of fertilizers (Urea was 702.5 quintals), 112 quintals of improved seed, 169 liters and 117 kg pesticides and 85 liters of herbicides were distributed to the farmers in the district. Stalk borer, army worm, birds, rodent, monkey, warthog, weevils and crickets are major crop pests. There were 68,408 cattle, 23,785 goats, 10569 sheep, 6,807 assess, 5,164 camels and 22,283 poultry in Gursum district. Widely prevalent livestock diseases are blackleg, anthrax, pasturelosis and orf disease. About 41277 and 29167 livestock were vaccinated and treated against different diseases respectively.

Mining and Industry:- The availability of feldspar, quartz, mineral water and garnet deposits are known in the district, but except dolomite and granite quarries, modern mining activity of any mineral was not started yet. As to industry, only 10 flourmills and one blocket factory were available in the indicated year. They provided employment opportunities for 44 persons.

Trade and Tourism:- There were 314 licensed business organizations (wholesalers, retailers and service renders) in the district. Groundnut, coffee and chat are the major local cash crops. Well known income generating tourist attractions sites were not available in Gursum.

Services:- The district had 75 km gravel and 30 km dry weather roads, a semi-automatic telephone and regular post office. About 4.2% of the rural and 21.2% of the urban populations were supplied with potable water. Springs, wells, ponds and rivers are major sources of drinking water for about 95.8% of the district’s total population. Hydro electric light and 3 fuel stations were available at Fugnan-Bira town. Firewood, charcoal, animals dung and agri-wastes are major sources of domestic energy supply in the district. Gursum district had one kindergarten (non-government), 26 elementary, 2 junior and one senior schools, holding 6,569 students 1,752 females) and 240 teaching staffs (75 females) in the indicated year. About 24.4% of the total enrolled students had left the school before the end of academic year. Students’ participation rates in elementary and junior secondary schools were 19.8% and 6.0% respectively. Similarly, a health center, 4 clinics and a rural drug vendor with 2 doctors, 5 nurses, a lab technician, 27 health assistants and 12 beds, a veterinary clinic with 7 veterinary personnel and a Commercial Bank were available in the district.

Development Activities:- Constructions of 7DA houses, one elementary and one junior schools, a clinic and rehabilitation of one health clinic (by government), health and water rehabilitation and community based water development projects (by CISP) were some of the major on-going activities in the district.

Problems and Potentials:- Unreliability of rainfall, low adoption of modern agricultural inputs, lack of credit services, shortage of schools, potable wager supply, health institutions and veterinary services, backward infrastructural facilities, and deterioration of forests and soil fertility are the major problems in the district. On the other hand, the district has large potentials of water, mineral and livestock resources.

A geographical map for Physical Characteristics:- click the URL below.


The Famous Mountain mount-Kundudo (2950m)

• Sources: The actual information document is from The Oromia State Government as indicated above.
• Photo and URL info is posted by The FBCGA www.fugnanbira.com



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