Nysa, Poland

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Main Square
Main Square
Flag of Nysa
Coat of arms of Nysa
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Śląski Rzym
Silesian Rome
Nysa is located in Poland
Coordinates: 50°28′17″N 17°20′2″E / 50.47139°N 17.33389°E / 50.47139; 17.33389
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Opole
County Nysa County
Gmina Gmina Nysa
Established 10th century
Town rights 1223
 • Mayor Kordian Kolbiarz
 • Total 27.5 km2 (10.6 sq mi)
Elevation 195 m (640 ft)
Population (31.12.2015)
 • Total 43,220
 • Density 1,600/km2 (4,100/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 48-300
Area code(s) +48 77
Car plates ONY
Website http://www.nysa.pl

Nysa [ˈnɨsa] (German: Neisse or Neiße) is a town in southwestern Poland on the Nysa Kłodzka river, situated in the Opole Voivodeship. With 43,220 inhabitants (2015), it is the capital of Nysa County. It comprises the urban portion of the surrounding Gmina Nysa. Historically the town was part of Lower Silesia.


Neisse in 1561 on 1. map of Silesia by Martin Helwig (map in reverse)
Nysa in a 1493 woodcut from Nuremberg Chronicle

Nysa is one of the oldest towns in Silesia. It was probably founded in the 10th century and afterwards became the capital of a principality of its name, which around 1200 became part of the Bishopric of Wrocław as the Duchy of Nysa. The town's fortifications from 1350 served to defend against the Hussites in 1424. The town and the duchy was part of Lands of the Bohemian Crown in years 1342 - 1742. One of the prominent signs that Nysa was a significant center, is the report in Nuremberg Chronicle, published in 1493, which mentions the city among the major urban centers of Central and Eastern Europe. In the description of the town population included in this chronicle we read "plebs rustica polonici ydeomatis ...". Other evidence is Nysa coat of arms at the entrance of the Charles Bridge in Prague, which is displayed alongside the crests of the most prominent Czech cities.

During the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) it was besieged three times. The first Silesian War (1740–41, War of the Austrian Succession) ended Austrian sovereignty over Silesia and left the town in the hands of King Frederick II of Prussia, who laid the foundations of its modern fortifications. On 25 August 1769 Neisse was the site of a meeting between Frederick II and Emperor Joseph II, co-regent in the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria.

During the Napoleonic Wars, Neisse was taken by the French in 1807. It retained its mostly Catholic character within the predominantly Protestant province of Silesia in the Kingdom of Prussia. Because of its many churches from the Gothic and Baroque periods the town was nicknamed "the Silesian Rome". From 1816-1911, the town was the seat of the Neisse District, after which it became an independent city.

After World War I, Neisse became part of the new Province of Upper Silesia. Conquered by the Red Army during World War II, the town was placed under Polish administration according to the Potsdam Agreement and renamed to the Polish Nysa. The town's German population was largely evacuated or forcibly expelled and replaced with Poles, many of whom were themselves expelled or resettled from what is now Western Ukraine (see: Kresy).

Nysa's monuments[edit]

As a result of destruction during World War II, the historic aspect of the town has only partially been preserved. The most important monuments have been rebuilt. A list of the monuments of Nysa is seen on the page Nysa's monuments.


Nysa city budget income sources as of 2015.

Until recently, Nysa was a major industrial centre in the Opole Voivodeship. The town was home to metal works, machinery production, agricultural produce and construction materials. The year 2002 saw the closure of the van company ZSD. The company constructed delivery vehicles, namely the ZSD Nysa, FSO Polonez and, until recently, the Citroën C15 and Berlingo. Currently, the factory remains closed.

Recently, the Wałbrzych Special Economic Zone[1] is located by Dubois Street (ul. Dubois) and Krapacka Street (ul. Krapacka), largely revolving around agricultural goods and produce, as well as metal works.[2]



Historical tenements
Old town

Other residents[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Nysa, Poland is twinned with:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Home - WSSE Invest-Park. Wałbrzyska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna Invest-Park.". WSSE Invest-Park. Wałbrzyska Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna Invest-Park. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  2. ^ "Nysa » mapy, nieruchomości, GUS, szkoły, kody pocztowe, wynagrodzenie, bezrobocie, zarobki, edukacja, tabele". www.polskawliczbach.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  • "NEISSE BUCH DER ERINNERUNG", Dr. Max Warmbrunn & Alfred Jahn, Gedruckt bei Druckhaus Nürnberg GmbH, 1966

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°28′N 17°20′E / 50.467°N 17.333°E / 50.467; 17.333