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Kundudo Mountain
The home of Wild Horses

From: Gursum
Tue Mar 14 05:52:24 -0800 2006
East Hararghe Zone



Physical Characteristics:- Having an area of 967.3 km2, Gursum district is found in the north eastern part of East Harerge zone http://www.multimap.com/wi/114394.htm.
.Jarso, Babile, Harari and Somali are the neighbouring districts and Regional States (fig.5). Fungnan Bira is the administrative seat of the district. The district is characterized by highlands and lowlands. Altitudinally, it stretches between 1200 and 2950 m.a.s.l. Kundudo (2950m), Medero (2500m), Ilalami (2131m), Fugnan Jueu (2200m) and Fugnan Chali (2100m) are the major mountains. Gursum lies within the Wabi Shebele drainage basin and accordingly drained by Hariro, Goro Obole, Bombas, Ejerti, Agemsa, etc. perennial rivers. Several streams and springs are also available. Climatically, it is classified into dega (15%), woinadega (35%) and Kolla (50%) zones. The major soil types are Vetric Cambisols, Vertic Luvisols, Eutric Fluvisols, Lithosols and Eutric Regosols. Juniperus, acacia, woodland, shrub and bush, and man made forests are available in the district. There are forests that are protected by the government. It spite of the fact that there is no wildlife conservation area, spotted hyena, duiker, baboon and warthog are found in the district.

Population:- There were 149,186 rural (73,852 females) and 9382 urban (4870 females) populations in the district. Young, economically independent and old age populations accounted for 50.4%, 47.7% and 1.8% respectively. Average family sizes for rural and urban center were 5.8 and 4.3 persons respectively. The district’s cured population density is estimated at 164 persons per km2.

Agriculture:- In 1996, about 15.7%, 8.9%, 13.2% and 22.4% of the district’s total area were arable, pasture, forest and built-up areas respectively, while the remaining was attributed to degraded and other areas. There were 36 Farmers’ Associations and one Services Cooperative with 25, 757 (2577 females) and 1336 (121 females) member farmers respectively. Average number of farm plots and farm oxen holding sizes per farmer household were 2.4 and 0.9 respectively. About 30% of the farmers were without farm ox. Maize, sorghum, haricot bean, barley and wheat are the dominant crops in the district. Application of manure, fertilizers, crop rotation and short fallowing methods are exercised to maintain soil fertility. About 1389 quintals of fertilizers (Urea was 702.5 quintals), 112 quintals of improved seed, 169 liters and 117 kg pesticides and 85 liters of herbicides were distributed to the farmers in the district. Stalk borer, army worm, birds, rodent, monkey, warthog, weevils and crickets are major crop pests. There were 68,408 cattle, 23,785 goats, 10569 sheep, 6,807 assess, 5,164 camels and 22,283 poultry in Gursum district. Widely prevalent livestock diseases are blackleg, anthrax, pasturelosis and orf disease. About 41277 and 29167 livestock were vaccinated and treated against different diseases respectively.

Mining and Industry:- The availability of feldspar, quartz, mineral water and garnet deposits are known in the district, but except dolomite and granite quarries, modern mining activity of any mineral was not started yet. As to industry, only 10 flourmills and one blocket factory were available in the indicated year. They provided employment opportunities for 44 persons.

Trade and Tourism:- There were 314 licensed business organizations (wholesalers, retailers and service renders) in the district. Groundnut, coffee and chat are the major local cash crops. Well known income generating tourist attractions sites were not available in Gursum.

Services:- The district had 75 km gravel and 30 km dry weather roads, a semi-automatic telephone and regular post office. About 4.2% of the rural and 21.2% of the urban populations were supplied with potable water. Springs, wells, ponds and rivers are major sources of drinking water for about 95.8% of the district’s total population. Hydro electric light and 3 fuel stations were available at Fugnan-Bira town. Firewood, charcoal, animals dung and agri-wastes are major sources of domestic energy supply in the district. Gursum district had one kindergarten (non-government), 26 elementary, 2 junior and one senior schools, holding 6,569 students 1,752 females) and 240 teaching staffs (75 females) in the indicated year. About 24.4% of the total enrolled students had left the school before the end of academic year. Students’ participation rates in elementary and junior secondary schools were 19.8% and 6.0% respectively. Similarly, a health center, 4 clinics and a rural drug vendor with 2 doctors, 5 nurses, a lab technician, 27 health assistants and 12 beds, a veterinary clinic with 7 veterinary personnel and a Commercial Bank were available in the district.

Development Activities:- Constructions of 7DA houses, one elementary and one junior schools, a clinic and rehabilitation of one health clinic (by government), health and water rehabilitation and community based water development projects (by CISP) were some of the major on-going activities in the district.

Problems and Potentials:- Unreliability of rainfall, low adoption of modern agricultural inputs, lack of credit services, shortage of schools, potable wager supply, health institutions and veterinary services, backward infrastructural facilities, and deterioration of forests and soil fertility are the major problems in the district. On the other hand, the district has large potentials of water, mineral and livestock resources.

• Sources: The actual profile information is from The Oromia State •

For more information about Gursum, Fugnanbira and its community visit

www.fugnanbira.com and also for more details about Gursum, Fugnanbira go to Link page http://www.fugnanbira.com/menu/links.asp and choose your selection under “EDUCATION”.

The Fugnanbira Community Group Association

From: Gursum
Wed Mar 12 14:53:10 -0700 2008
Gursum Community Commends the Italian Research Team:

Gursum Community Organization in Diaspora commends the Italian Research team led by Prof. Vigano who recently took a trip to Kundudo Mountain located in the Eastern Hararge region of Ethiopia and reported its finding.

In the letter of appreciation sent to Professor Vigano, The Community’s Vice President Meftuh Shash said:

Gurusm Community in Diaspora commend you and your team for your initiatives in visiting and reporting your findings on Mount Kundudo located in Eastern Hararge Region of Ethiopia in January of this year. We came across several Webs and local media, and have the opportunity to review your findings and recommendations written in Italian “I Cavalli Selvaggi del Kundudo” as well. We highly appreciate you and your team’s efforts of elevating the mostly needed awareness locally and internationally to save the endangered Wild horses in the region from their extinction.”

In support of Prof. Viagno’s report Meftuh Shash said:

We are highly in support of Prof. Vigano’s report and recommendations and encourage all the local government bodies, Tourism Administration, Natural Resource Conservation and Communities and International NGO’s to give due attention in to saving this region environment and its unique Wild horses. The study indicates may be these are the only living Wild horses remaining in East Africa and highly potential for tourism industry. This needs facilitating the amenities and aggressive promotion at all level to the country’s development.

Mount. Kududo, 3000 meters high located in Eastern Hararge Region of Ethiopia.

Meftuh Shash also shares his experience to adventure trip to Mount Kundudo in early 70s and recently in 2007 said:

In 1973, ten of us as young teenagers including myself all of us from the town of Gursum, took an adventure trip to Mount Kundudo in search for the Wild Horses. Our journey started from the Stinico Mountain in the town of Gursum which the chain of mountains stretches all the way to Kundudo. After three hours journey on foot, we reached the bottom of the Kundudo Mountain which was covered by a very thick cloud with the zero visibility. Though we had difficulty to find the only narrow ally entrance to the top of the mountain due to lack of the visibility finally we reached to the top. At the time the plain magnificent field looked like a green golf course, where the lawn is trimmed. On wet spongy feel grass on top of the Mountain we met with a colony of Baboons to the east of the entrance and around 10 beautiful Wild Horses to the West. We were so excited to meet these beautiful horses and as they see they had company they started running away. As we approach them for a close look they started running with a beautiful display. As we approach the baboons, they quickly took an exit down the mountain to the east. We were all amazed of the height and the beauty of the overlook of the environment, it was just breath taking.

From the pictures released by the research team we noticed sever environmental degradation on top of the mountain field which, during our trip over 30 years a go, it was golf green plain as if it was trimmed with mower.

Although we planned to camp on the field of Kundudo, this was not possible due to heavy rain falling in the evening and we climbed down to the nearest called Fugnan Hujuba where we spent the night and left the next day back to our home town of Gursum.

Meftuh Shash also noted his trip in 2007 to the region and said:

On January 23, 2007, During Harari Millennium Celebration event me and my colleague took a trip to our hometown of Gursum, Fugnanbira. Our Journey began from Harar to Babile for a shortstop for at Dakhata Known as (Marvel Valley of Rocks) and Elephant Sanctuary. We found this magnificent valley and natural phenomenon spectacular and has a great potential for tourism. As we arrived to Gursum and toured various areas, we also had the opportunity to speak with the Deputy Administrator of the town to work together as a community to introduce the regions tourism potentials. Kundudo Mountain Wild Horses were part of our discussion. We were advised that soon there will a documentary to promote the potential areas and we extended our desire to promote our home town around the world to get the exposure needed internationally.

Our way back to Harar we drove the root to Kundudo Mountain, via Awe Bare, Fugnan Hujuba, Ejarsagoro, Jarso, Fellana, Kombolcha and finally our destination the City of Harar.

In his conclusion Meftuh Shash assured the community’s commitment saying:

We believe as a community it is our obligation to elevate awareness in conservation and promote our country’s potential resources for its development. Our community has been promoting conservations and reforestation of the degraded environment of the region as can be seen in this attached document at the bottom of the page. http://www.wscsd.org/ejournal/article.php3?id_article=232 we will continue striving in our capacity to communicate with the local administration and our community back home in an effort to help promote our Country’s development endeavors.




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